Here’s a re-post on an important topic. New posts to follow. –PalMD
Sixty years ago, the world was full of miracles. Western Europe was recovering from the devastation of World War II, an agricultural revolution promised to banish the fear of starvation in large parts of the world, and the mythical Mad Men era gave Americans a taste of technology-dependent peace and prosperity unlike any in the past. Despite the technological progress that would soon send animals into space and return them relatively unharmed, Americans, and westerners in general, were still dying of heart disease at a frightening rate. If you, as a middle aged American, experienced chest pain and were lucky enough to make it to a hospital (about 20% of all sufferers would die immediately), you would probably be given nitroglycerin and morphine to control you pain, put on bed rest, and could expect to live a few more years, with limited physical activity.
Heart disease continues to be a top killer of Americans, but there has been a dramatic decline in heart disease mortality in the last 60 years, with age-specific mortality rates dropping 60%. Fewer people are developing heart disease, and those that have it are living longer. It is estimated that in 2000 alone, there were 341,745 fewer heart disease deaths than would have been expected if rates had remained unchanged.
The trend has been going on for many decades, and has been accelerating, although current trends in diabetes and obesity put us at risk for more overall cases of heart disease in the future. So what are we doing right? How have we managed to cut the death rate from heart disease so dramatically?
Several studies have helped illuminate the answers. There have been different relative contributions from primary prevention (preventing new cases of heart disease) and secondary prevention (preventing recurrent cases). A recent study in the American Journal of Public Health analysed data from 1980-2000. The authors found that most of the reduction in deaths from heart disease (nearly 80%) were due to primary prevention, specifically decreasing smoking rates, and improvements in blood pressure and cholesterol levels. Society-wide reductions in smoking, blood pressure, and cholesterol are saving hundreds of thousands of lives in the U.S. every year.
The smoking rate in the US is still hovering around 24%. More than half of people with known high blood pressure do not have their blood pressure under control. This study shows us that we can easily prevent more heart attack deaths through education and through better adherence to extant treatment guidelines. Reducing heart disease deaths isn’t hard, and it won’t take miracles. We just have to want to do it.
*Similar trends have been seen in other English-speaking countries
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